You cannot dissolve much sodium hydrogen carbonate (one of the Balling substances) in water. Therefore you need for automatically dosing large tanks. As an alternative the AquaCare lime water reactor (KWR) may be filled with this chemical. The material dissolves by and by and the needed volume is smaller (factor 4.5 and more).

Autotrophic nitrate filters ("sulfur-nitrate-filter") produce acid that may drop the pH of the aquarium water. Makes a downstream installed chalk stage sense?

A chemical-free reef tank is the wish of many aquarists. But the aquarium is never in a biological-physical-chemical balance! Without the help of the aquarist the system will collapse: regularly some substances has to be removed and others has to be added.

The topic nitrate filter is discussed vehemently. Besides "nitrate killers" there are too different systems: autotrophically working filter with sulfur material (sulfur-nitrate-filter) and heterotophic running systems that have to be fed regularly with organic substances.

Most of the trace elements are highly diluted metal compounds that will quickly oxidise during storing. These oxidised elements are not bio-available for animals and algae. So trace elements have to be protected.

The important nutrient phosphor is a lack factor in natural reefs. But in hobby tanks its concentration may raise to dangerous amounts that will damage corals and others. Especially small polyped corals (SPS) loose their colour, release their zooxanthellae and die. Possibilities for avoiding and eliminating are shown.

Total hardness (calcium and magnesium concentration) and alkalinity (KH value, carbonate hardness, acid capacity, buffer capacity) are the main factors in the aquaristic water chemistry. They influences the pH value and the carbon dioxid concentration and they are important component for the skeleton of corals.

Calcium and hydrogen carbonate (alkalinity) are existent as ions in sea water - another name for them is "soluble lime". If this value is not in the optimum range animals that needs soluble lime are not able to create their skeleton and will die.

Activated carbon is used for several applications. Every carbon has its advantage and disadvantages. This article shows the main applications for sea water aquaristics.

Lime water is a very old but still actual method to supply calcium to the sea water aquarium. As well the pH value will raise and phosphat concentration will decrease. But there are some facts you have to now for undertaking lime water dosing.